3-FPM | 3-Fluorophenmetrazine | C11H15ClFNO
3-Fluorophenmetrazine is a fluorinated derivative of phenmetrazine, a compound of the morpholine class. Phenmetrazine (the active component of the drug Preludin) has been widely used in the pharmacotherapy of obesity since the 1950s.
There are several pharmacological substances currently in the market which have several beneficial properties from a medical and scientific perspective. This compounds primary reported side effects include its ability to bring about stimulation, elevated heart rate, euphoria, social stimulation, increased confidence and energy as well as its primary function as an appetite suppressant.
Due to these reasons, the regulatory bodies governing the production and distribution of this molecule have, while despite not banning or imposing any regulations or guidelines as per its use in-vitro, opted to pull it from most American, European and Asian markets.
3-Fluorophenmetrazine, more popularly known as 3-FPM and more commonly found as a Hydrochloride salt of a white, crystalline appearance.
What is 3-Fluorophenmetrazine?
As discussed previously, 3-Fluorophenmetrazine, named 3-FPM henceforth, is very loosely considered a derivative of amphetamine. Consequently, amphetamine and its derivatives more commonly traded under the brand names Adderall™, Vyvanse™, Dexedrine™ among others, are infamous for their stimulant properties.
This fact does not rule out the promise it shows regarding its pharmacokinetic profile. Chemically, it belongs to a class called Phenylmorpholines. If you look at its mechanism of action, it mainly functions by increasing the secretion of several excitatory neurotransmitters like dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. As an NDRA with EC50 values of 43nM and 30nM respectively, it has negligible effects on Serotonin with its EC50 value of 2558nM.
3-FPM also inhibits uptake mediated by dopamine and norepinephrine transporters in GEJ283 cells with IC50 values under 2.5 μM.
What were the perceived effects per scientific literature?
3-FPM has been prescribed across the globe for several therapeutic purposes thanks to the subtle yet highly functional effects it brings legitimately prescribed patients. While the molecule bares resembles to amphetamine and its derivatives, its potency as a euphoriant and wakefulness-promoting agent, all while having minimal impact on general anxiety grant its far lower risk profile. While perceived effects are extremely subjective, the following can be scientifically confirmed by simply reviewing the mechanism of action as per the previous paragraphs.
● Increase in perceived energy and stimulation – Mild to moderate stimulating properties can be felt. This often translates in an elevated heart rate and slightly increased core body temperature.
● Appetite suppression – Its main prescribed use was for this effect. The hunger perceived by the patient or test subject was vastly diminished while not rendering the patient physically unable to eat. For this reason, patients were able to still nourish themselves sufficiently while reducing the likelihood of overeating.
● Increased stamina – Similarly to the first effect mentioned above, an increase in stamina can result in someone performing a physical action for longer than they normally would otherwise.
● Elevated heart rate – Increases the rate at which the heart pumps blood, thus, enabling 3-FPM to show promise for patients suffering of low blood pressure where the blood flow is not adequate. Similarly, it helps in the proper redistribution of blood to the peripheral part of the body. No further research was published pertaining to this side-effect.
● Increased libido – The libido or sexual appetite of a person can increase with use as the effects dopamine and norepinephrine uptake cause not only an increase in confidence, but also sensory enhancement. See below.
● Sensory enhancement – Due to the effects on dopamine and norepinephrine, patients reported increased appreciation of sound and music as well as enhanced tactile sensation.
● Improved sociability – Several patients have reported that therapeutic use of this compound, when prescribed by a licensed physician and following harm-reduction practices, also increases social abilities and connectedness with others. On top of the dopaminergic effects it has resulting in euphoria and a warmer mood, the mild stimulation produced by the drug also allows people to socialise more efficiently. This positive effect was doubled by reinforcing the patient’s ability to see themselves as being able to interact with others with less malaise than when on placebo doses during trials.
● Enhanced concentration and motivation – Thanks to the moderate yet pronounced increase in energy and lack of serotonergic effects, its stimulation is extremely functional.
● Clarity of mind and wakefulness – As a wakefulness promoting agent and the overall extremely malleable effects it provides to patients, it was often reported to bring on a very clear-headed and alert state of being.
Credited and professional studies
Test purchase, synthesis and characterization of 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) and differentiation from its ortho – and para-substituted isomers, January 2016, Drug Testing and Analysis.
3-fluorophenmetrazine – a new psychoactive substance on the polish drug market, Piotr ADAMOWICZ, Joanna GIEROŃ, Institute of Forensic Research, Kraków, Poland
This study highlights the synthesis and extensive analytical characterization of 3-FPM and its differentiation from synthesized ortho- and para-substituted isomers, 2-FPM, and 4-FPM, respectively. This research was initiated due to the purchase of five powdered samples advertised as 3-FPM by 5 different online sellers in the United Kingdom. The analytical data collected from the seller’s samples were consistent with the synthesized 3-FPM standard, and differentiation between all three isomers was possible.
After an accident by a 20-year-old driver in Poland, the blood was collected for examination by the forensic team in view of a suspicion. The blood was examined for the presence of any narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances from the following groups: amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, opioids, and cocaine. These analyses were performed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using Neogen’s tests. The results of the first analyses indicated a very high concentration of 3-FPM in the evidential blood; therefore, further samples were diluted five times with control blood, so that the results of determinations were within the range of the calibration curve.
This study authenticated the first case of detection of 3-FPM in biological material, which was reported at the Institute of Forensic Research at the end of February 2016, as described above.
3-Fluorophenmetrazine, a fluorinated analog of phenmetrazine: Studies on in vivo metabolism in rat and human, in vitro metabolism in human CYP isoenzymes and microbial biotransformation in Pseudomonas Putida and wastewater using GC and LC coupled to (HR)-MS techniques
This study aimed to identify in vivo phase I and II metabolites of the NPS 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM) in human and rat urine and study the in vitro contribution of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes in phase I metabolism. Additionally, to study microbial biotransformation products (MBPs) of 3-FPM from incubations in wastewater and in a wastewater isolated Pseudomonas Putida strain. Based on these findings, the proposed strategy for WBE analysis of 3-FPM is quantitative determination of unchanged 3-FPM together with qualitative verification of a number of selected metabolites to verify consumption and rule out discharge.
Proper handling and recommended storage
Preserving the integrity of a substance is primordial to ensure that the results yielded through analysis are not influenced by outside factors brought about my degradation due to climate, moisture or cross-contamination. While 3-FPM is a sturdy molecule, it is advised to keep it stored cold, away from oxygen and UV light.
Refer to the attached MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) for more information on proper handling, storage, and clean-up measures in the event of spillage.
In North America, 3-FPM remains unscheduled and is only available by prescription (very rarely used as other alternatives are currently marketed by large pharmaceutical corporations backed by extremely strict and complex patents).
Despite its accessible status in North America, 3-FPM has been scheduled in certain parts of Europe and some States and Nations might argue that it falls under one of the many blanket-bans many analogues and derivatives face.
Being only available to licensed, trained and accredit academics, researchers and scientists for in-vitro use only, 3-FPM is becoming an exceedingly popular and in-demand molecule. The collective scientific communities around the world have been sharing much knowledge and insight into this compound and countless new discoveries are to be made!
Note: This content is exclusively for forensic, research and educational purposes. All information provided is anecdotal and/or pulled from scientific literature and medical journals. We do not promote or condone any form of human or veterinary use (with exceptions to certain cell cultures or micro-organisms based on jurisdiction).
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|About this molecule
|CAS Registry Number:
PUBCHEM Registry Number :
|1350768-28-3 HCl1803562-83-5 7